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The MOSQUITO project took one of the most promising approaches to quantum computing and implemented it on an industrial CMOS platform. The first important step was accomplished within 3 years: building the first CMOS-based qubit, which is the basic building block of a quantum computer.

Published on 23 April 2021

MOS-based Quantum Information Technology

The MOSQUITO project took one of the most promising approaches to quantum computing and implemented it on an industrial CMOS platform. The first important step was accomplished within 3 years: building the first CMOS-based qubit, which is the basic building block of a quantum computer.


Starting date: Apr. 2016 > Apr. 2019 

Lifetime: 36 months

Program in support :

H2020 - ICT


Status of project: Complete

CEA-Leti's contact



Project Coordinator: CEA-Leti


  • EPFL (CH)

  • University of Copenhagen (DK)

  • VTT (FL)

  • Hitachi Cambridge Lab University College London (GB)

  • CNR (IT)


  • 99.992% 28Si CVD-grown epilayer on 300 mm substrates for large scale integration of silicon spin qubits», V. Mazzocchi, P.-G. Sennikov, A.-D. Bulanov, M.-F. Churbanov, B. Bertrand, L. Hutin, J.-P. Barnes, M.-N. Drozdov, J.-M. Hartmann, M. Sanquer, Journal of Crystal Growth, 509, 2019.

  • «Si MOS technology for spin-based quantum computing», L. Hutin, B. Bertrand, R. Maurand, A. Crippa, M. Urdampilleta, Y.-J. Kim, A. Amisse, H. Bohuslavskyi, L. Bourdet, S. Barraud, X. Jeh, Y.-M. Niquet, M. Sanquer, C. Bäuerle, T. Meunier, S. De Franceschi, M. Vinet, IEEE ESSDERC 2018, Dresden, Germany, Sept. 2018.

  • «Cryogenic Characterization of 28-nm FD-SOI Ring Oscillators With Energy Efficiency Optimization», H. Bohuslavskyi, S. Barraud, V. Barral, M. Cassé, L. Le Guevel, L. Hutin, B. Bertrand, A. Crippa, X. Jehl, G. Pillonnet, AGM Jansen, F. Arnaud, P. Galy, R. Maurand, S. De Franceschi, M. Sanquer, M. Vinet, IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev., 65, 9, 2018.

  • «Development of spin quantum bits in SOI CMOS technology», B. Bertrand, L. Hutin, L. Bourdet, A. Corna, B. Jadot, H. Bohuslavskvi, A. Crippa, R. Maurand, S. Barraud, M. Urdampilleta, C. Bäuerle, T. Meunier, M. Sanquer, X. Jehl, S. De Francerschi, Y.-M. Niquet, M. Vinet, IEEE Nano, Cork, Ireland, Jul. 2018.

  • «All-electrical control of a hybrid electron spin/valley quantum bit in SOI CMOS technology», L. Hutin, L. Bourdet, B. Bertrand, A. Corna, H. Bohuslavskyi, A. Amisse, A. Crippa, R. Maurand, S. Barraud, M. Urdampilleta, C. Bäuerle, T. Meunier, M. Sanquer, X. Jehl, S. De Franceschi, Y.-M. Niquet, M. Vinet, IEEE VLSI Tech. Symp., Honolulu, USA, Jun. 2018.

  • «Towards quantum computing in Si MOS technology: Single-shot readout of spin states in a FDSOI split-gate device with built-in charge detector», M. Urdampilleta, L. Hutin, B. Jadot, B. Bertrand, H. Bohuslavskyi, R. Maurand, S. Barraud, C. Bäuerle, M. Sanquer, X. Jehl, S. De Franceschi, T. Meunier, M. Vinet, IEEE VLSI Tech. Symp. 2017, Kyoto, Japan, Jun. 2017.

  • «SOI technology for quantum information processing», S. De Franceschi, L. Hutin, R. Maurand, L. Bourdet, H. Bohuslavskyi, A. Corna, D. Kotekar-Patil, S. Barraud, X. Jehl, Y.-M. Niquet, M. Sanquer, M. Vinet, IEEE IEDM 2016, San Francisco, USA, Dec. 2016.

  • «Si CMOS platform for quantum information processing», L. Hutin, R. Maurand, D. Kotekar-Patil, A. Corna, H. Bohuslavskyi, X. Jehl, S. Barraud, S. De Franceschi, M. Sanquer, M. Vinet, IEEE VLSI Tech. Symp. 2016, Honolulu, USA, Jun. 2016.

Total Investment: € 3.9 mi

EC Contribution: € 3.5 mi

More info on website


On the MOSQUITO project, CEA-Leti’s role was to fabricate linear arrangements of Gate-defined Quantum Dots along Si nanowires to demonstrate spin quantum bits on a CMOS platform. 
A full mask set (19 DUV levels and 4 EBeam databases) was coupled to a process flow, closely derived from an SOI NanoWire FET fabrication sequence, to deliver a batch of 300mm wafers with multiple-gate test devices. A new patterning strategy, relying on misalignment-tolerant hybrid DUV-EBeam lithography, was developed simultaneously to 
  • achieve 65nm Gate pitch with good dimensional control
  • save EBeam writing time
  • respect the density rules compatible with Back-End-Of-Line processing in an industrial fabrication facility. 
This high throughput approach allowed provision of more than a hundred thousand testable devices in a given batch. Our devices were tested at cryogenic temperatures by the consortium partners to control coherently the spin state of the elementary charges confined by the Quantum-Dot-defining Field-Effect Gates. 
This led to the first demonstration of a hole spin qubit in silicon and to the first experimental demonstration of all-electrical control of single electron spins in silicon. Furthermore, single-shot readoutschemes, based on Gate reflectometry, were implemented for fast detection (~1μs) of chargestate variations in Quantum Dots. 
In summary, the main outcome of this project was establishing a design and fabrication platform for prototype devices, which are simultaneously competitive with academic state-of-the-art semiconductor spin qubits and compatible with CMOS foundry processing.


A qubit device embeds a quantum two-level system that encodes an elementary bit of quantum information. Our type of qubit relies on a spin degree of freedom of an electronic or nuclear type. It was recently shown that a spin in silicon can hold a bit of quantum information for very long periods.

 This made it an attractive option for building a quantum computer. A number of silicon-based spin qubits had already been proposed and had been experimentally demonstrated in academic research laboratories. The main aim of this project was to show that such high-fidelity spin qubits can be manufactured in silicon using industry-standard CMOS processes at a large-scale nanofabrication facility.

Our approach was based one a single, versatile building block, which could be tuned to operate under different regimes to give up to five different qubit productions in one device. The performance of these different qubit was benchmarked against key criteria such as fidelity, speed and suitability for large-scale integration.

Design and modelling was implemented alongside measured performance metrics to identify optimum large-scale architectures, while control tools were developed for application to scaled qubit arrays. 
We also developed a toolkit of CMOS based conventional devices (low noise amplifiers, RF generators and multiplexers) for use as low-temperature peripheral electronics to ensure better control and readout. Sharing the same CMOS technology, qubits and peripheral electronics could even be positioned close to each other on the same chip. This unique opportunity could be particularly helpful for developing fast readout circuitry.
Summary of main project goals:
  • Fabrication of spin qubit devices using 300-mm SOI technology
  • Implementation and comparison of different qubit layouts
  • Optimization of qubit design for large-scale integration
  • Development of a quantum control toolbox suitable for large-scale integrated qubits
  • Development of low-temperature peripheral electronics for better qubit control.

  • The MOSQUITO project had the tangible effect of bringing quantum physics and electronics industry together in a common
  • goal, which may lead to a revolution in information technology.
  • This also has impact on the educational level. The interdisciplinary character of MOSQUITO brought together students and postdoctoral researchers with either an engineering or physics background and offered them skills that bridge the gap between quantum physics and silicon electronics technology.